Lovecraft and the Mad Arab Tale


IN THE MID - 1920's, roughly two blocks from where the Warlock Shop once stood, in Brooklyn Heights, lived a quiet, reclusive man, an author of short stories, who eventually divorced his wife of two years and returned to his boyhood home in Rhode Island, where he lived with his two aunts. Born on August 20, 1890, Howard Phillips Lovecraft would come to exert an impact on the literary world that dwarfs his initial successes with Weird Tales magazine in 1923. He died, tragically, at the age of 46 on March 15, 1937, a victim of cancer of the intestine and Bright's Disease. Though persons of such renown as Dashiell Hammett were to become involved in his work, anthologising it for publication both here an abroad, the reputation of a man generally conceded to be the "Father of Gothic Horror" did not really come into its own until the past few years, with the massive re-publication of his works by various houses, a volume of his selected letters, and his biography. In the July, 1975, issue The Atlantic Monthly, there appeared a story entitled "There Are More Things", written by Jorge Luis Borges, "To the memory of H.P. Lovecraft". This gesture by a man of the literary stature of Borges is certainly an indication that Lovecraft has finally ascended to his rightful place in the history of American literature, nearly forty years after his death.

In the same year that Lovecraft found print in the pages of Weird Takes, another gentleman was seeing his name in print; but in the British tabloid press.

NEW SINISTER REVELATIONS OF ALEISTER CROWLEY read the front page of the Sunday Express. It concerned testimony by one of the notorious magician's former followers (or, actually, the wife of one of his followers) that Crowley had been responsible for the death of her husband, at the Abbey of Thelema, in Cefalu, Sicily. The bad press, plus the imagined threat of secret societies, finally forced Mussolini to deport the Great Beast from Italy. Tales of horrors filled the pages of the newspapers in England for weeks and months to come: satanic rituals, black masses, animal sacrifice, and even human sacrifice, were reported - or blatantly lied about. For although many of the stories were simply not true or fanciful exaggeration, one thing was certain: Aleister Crowley was a Magician, and one of the First Order.

Born on October 12, 1875, in England - in the same country as Shakespeare - Edward Alexander Crowley grew up in a strict Fundamentalist religious family, members of a sect called the "Plymouth Brethren". The first person to call him by that Name and Number by which he would become famous (after the reference in the Book of Revelation), "The Beast 666", was his mother, and he eventually took this appellation to heart. He changed his name to Aleister Crowley while still at Cambridge, and by that name , plus "666", he would never be long out of print, or out of newspapers. For he believed himself to be the incarnation of a god, an Ancient One, the vehicle of a New Age of Man's history, the Aeon of Horus, displacing the old Age of Osiris. In 1904, he had received a message, from what Lovecraft might have called "out of space", that contained the formula for a New World Order, a new system of philosophy, science, art and religion, but this New Order had to begin with the fundamental part, and common denominator, of all four: Magick.

In 1937, the year Lovecraft dies, the Nazis banned the occult lodges of Germany, notable among them two organisations which Crowley had supervised: the A\ A\ and the O.T.O., the latter of which he was elected head in England, and the former which he founded himself. There are those who believe that Crowley was somehow, magickally, responsible for the Third Reich, for two reasons: one, that the emergence of New World Orders generally seems to instigate holocausts and, two, that he is said to have influenced the mind of Adolf Hitler. While it is almost certain that Crowley and Hitler never met, it is known that Hitler belonged to several occult lodges in the early days after the First War; the symbol of one of these, the Thule Gesellschaft which preached a doctrine of Aryan racial superiority, was the infamous Swastika which Hitler was later to adopt as the Symbol of the forms, however, is evident in many of his writings, notably the essays written in the late 'Thirties. Crowley seemed to regard the Nazi phenomenon as a Creature of Christianity, in it's anti-Semitism and sever moral restrictions concerning its adherents, which lead to various types of lunacies and "hangups" that characterised many of the Reich's leadership. Yet, there can be perhaps little doubt that the chaos which engulfed the world in those years was prefigured, and predicted, in Crowley's Liber AL vel Legis; the Book of the Law.

The Mythos and the Magick

We can profitably compare the essence of most of Lovecraft's short stories with the basic themes of Crowley's unique system of ceremonial Magick. While the latter was a sophisticated psychological structure, intended to bring the initiate into contact with his higher Self, via a process of individuation that is active and dynamic (being brought about by the "patient" himself) as opposed to the passive depth analysis of the Jungian adepts, Lovecraft's Cthulhu Mythos was meant for entertainment. Scholars, of course, are able to find higher, ulterior motives in Lovecraft's writings, as can be done with any manifestation of Art.

Lovecraft depicted a kind of Christian Myth of the struggle between opposing forces of Light and Darkness, between God and Satan, in the Cthulhu Mythos. Some critics may complain that this smacks more of the Manichaen heresy than it does of genuine Christian dogma; yet, as a priest and former monk, I believe it is fair to say that this dogma is unfortunately very far removed from the majority of the Faithful to be of much consequence. The idea of a War against Satan, and of the entities of Good and Evil having roughly equivalent Powers, is perhaps best illustrated by the belief, common among the Orthodox churches of the East, in a personal Devil as well as a personal angel. This concept has been amplified by the Roman Catholic Church to such an extent - perhaps subconsciously - that a missal in the Editor's possession contains an engraving for the Feast of St. Andrew, Apostle, for November 30, that bears the legend "Ecce Qui Tollis Peccata Mundi" - Behold Him Who Taketh Away The Sins of the World - and the picture above it is of the atomic bomb!

Basically, there are two "sets" of gods in the mythos : the Elder Gods, about whom not much is revealed, save that they are a stellar Race that occasionally comes to the rescue of man, and which corresponds to the Christian "Light"; and the Ancient Ones, about which much is told, sometimes in great detail, who correspond to "Darkness". These latter are the Evil Gods who wish nothing but ill for the Race of Man, and who constantly strive to break into our world through a Gate or Door that leads from the Outside, In. There are certain people, among us, who are devotees of the Ancient Ones, and who try to open the Gate, so that this evidently repulsive organisation may once again rule the Earth. Chief among these is Cthulhu, typified as a Sea Monster, dwelling in the Great Deep, a sort of primeval Ocean; a Being that Lovecraft collaborator August Derleth wrongly calls a "water elemental". There is also Azazoth, the blind idiot god of Chaos, Yog Sothot, Azathoth's partner in Chaos, Shub Niggurath, the "goat with a thousand young", and others. They appear at various times throughout the stories of the Cthulhu Mythos in frightening forms, which test the strength and resourcefulness of the protagonists in their attempts to put the hellish Things back to whence they came. There is an overriding sense of primitive dear and cosmic terror in those pages, as though man is dealing with something that threatens other than his physical safety: his very spiritual nature. This horror-cosmology is extended by the frequent appearance of the Book, NECRONOMICON.

The NECRONOMICON, is according to Lovecraft's tales, a volume written in Damascus in the Eighth Century, A.D., by a person called the "Mad Arab", Abdhul Alhazred. It must run roughly 800 pages in length, as there is a reference in one of the stories concerning some lacunae on a page in the 700's It had been copied and reprinted in various languages - the story goes - among them Latin, Greek and English. Doctor Dee, the Magus of Elizabethan fame, was supposed to have possessed a copy and translated it. This book, according to the mythos, contains the formulae for evoking incredible things into visible appearance, beings and monsters which dwell in the Abyss, and Outer Space, of the human psyche.

Such books have existed in fact, and do exist. Idries Shah tells us of a search he conducted for a copy of the Book of Power by the Arab magician Abdul-Kadir (see: The Secret Lore of Magic by Shah), of which only one copy was ever found. The Keys of Solomon had a similar reputation, as did The Magus by Barret, until all of these works were eventually reprinted in the last fifteen years or so. The Golden Dawn, a famous British and American Occult lodge of the turn of the Century, was said to have possessed a manuscript called "the Veils of Negative Existence" by another Arab.

These were the sorcerer's handbooks, and generally not meant as textbooks or encyclopedias of ceremonial magick. In other words, the sorcerer or magician is supposed to be in possession of the requisite knowledge and training with which to carry out a complex magickal ritual, just as a cook is expected to be able to master the scrambling of eggs before he conjures an "eggs Benedict"; the grimoires, or Black Books, were simply variations on a theme, like cookbooks, different records of what previous magicians had done, the spirits they had contacted, and the successes they had. The magicians who now read these works are expected to be able to select the wheat from the chaff, in much the same fashion as an alchemist discerning the deliberate errors in a treatise on his subject.

Therefore it was (and is) insanity for the tyro to pick up a work on ceremonial Magick like the Lesser Key of Solomon to practise conjurations. It would also be folly to pick up Crowley's Magick in Theory and Practise with the same intention. Both books are definitely not for beginners, a point which cannot be made too often. Unfortunately, perhaps, the dread NECRONOMICON falls into this category.

Crowley's Magick was a testimony of what he has found in his researches into the forbidden, and forgotten, lore of past civilisations and ancient times. His Book of the Law was written in Cairo in the Spring of 1904, when he believed himself to be in contact with a praeter-human intelligence called Aiwass who dictated to him the Three Chapters that make up the Book. It had influenced him more than any other, and the remainder of his life was spent trying to understand it fully, and to make its message known to the world. It, too, contains the formulae necessary to summon the invisible into visibility, and the secrets of transformations are hidden within its pages, but this is Crowley's own NECRONOMICON, received in the Middle East in the shadow of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh, and therein is writ not only the beauty, but the Beast that yet awaits mankind.

It would be vain to attempt to deliver a synopsis of Crowley's philosophy, save that its 'leitmotif' is the Rabelaisian

Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law.

The actual meaning of this phrase has taken volumes to explain, but roughly it concerns the uniting of the conscious Self, a process of individuation which culminates in a rite called "Knowledge and Conversation of the Holy Guardian Angel"; the Angel signifying the pure, evolved Self.

Yet, there are many terrors on the Way to the Self, and an Abyss to cross before victory can be declared. Demons, vampires, psychic leeches, ghastly forms accost the aspiring magician from every angle, from every quarter around the circumference of the magick circle, and they must be destroyed lest they devour the magician himself. When Crowley professed to have passed the obstacles, and crossed the Abyss of Knowledge, and found his true Self, he found it was identical with the Beast of the Book of Revelation, 666, whom Christianity considers to represent the Devil. Indeed, Crowley had nothing but admiration for the Shaitan (Satan) of the so-called "Devil-worshipping" cult of the Yezidis of Mesopotamia, knowledge of which led him to declare the lines that open this Introduction. For he saw that the Yezidis possess a Great Secret and a Great Tradition that extends far back into time, beyond the origin of the Sun cults of Osiris, Mithra and Christ; even before the formation of the Judaic religion, and the Hebrew tongue. Crowley harkened back to a time before the Moon was worshipped, to the "Shadow Out of Time"; and in this, whether he realised it as such or not, he had heard the "Call of Cthulhu".


That a reclusive author of short stories who lived in a quiet neighbourhood in New England, and the manic, infamous Master Magician who called the world his home, should have somehow met in the sandy wastes of some forgotten civilisation seems incredible. That they should both have become Prophets and Forerunners of a New Aeon of Man's history is equally, if not more, unbelievable. Yet, with H.P. Lovecraft and Aleister Crowley, the unbelievable was a commonplace of life. These two men, both acclaimed as geniuses by their followers and admirers, and who never actually met, stretched their legs across the world, and in the Seven League Boots of the mind they did meet, and on common soil . . . . Sumeria.

Sumeria is the name given to a once flourishing civilisation that existed in what is now known as Iraq, in the area called by the Greeks "Mesopotamia" and by the Arabs as, simply, "The Island" for it existed between two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, which run down from the mountains to the Persian Gulf. This is the site of the fabled city of Babylon, as well as of Ur of the Chaldees and Kish, with Nineveh far to the north. Each of the seven principal cities of Sumeria was ruled by a different deity, who was worshipped in the strange, non-Semitic language of the Sumerians; and language which has been closely allied to that of the Aryan race, having in fact many words identical to that of Sanskrit (and, it is said, to Chinese!).

For no one knows where the Sumerians came from, and they vanished just as mysteriously as they appeared, after the Assyrian invasions which decimated their culture, yet providing the Assyrians with much of their mythology and religion; so much so that Sumerian became the official language of the state church, much as Latin is today of the Roman Catholic Church. They had a list of their kings before the Flood, which even they carefully chronicled, as did many another ancient civilisation around the world. It is believed that they had a sophisticated system of astronomy (and astrology) as well as an equally religious rituale. Magick, as well in history, begins at Sumer for the Western World, for it his here, in the sand-buried cuneiform tablets that recorded an Age, that the first Creation Epic is found, the first exorcism, the first ritual invocations of planetary deities, the first dark summonings of evil Powers, and ironically, the first "burnings" of people the anthropologists call "Witches".

Lovecraft's mythos deals with what are known chthonic deities, that is, underworld gods and goddesses, much like the Leviathan of the Old Testament. The pronunciation of chthonic is 'katonic', which explains Lovecraft's famous Miskatonic River and Miskatonic University, not to mention the chief deity of his pantheon, Cthulhu, a sea monster who lies, "not dead, but dreaming" below the world; an Ancient One and supposed enemy of Mankind and the intelligent Race. Cthulhu is accompanied by an assortment of other grotesqueries, such as Azathot and Shub Niggurath. It is of extreme importance to occult scholars that many of these deities had actual counterparts, at least in name, to deities of the Sumerian Tradition, that same Tradition that the Magus Aleister Crowley deemed it so necessary to "rediscover".

The Underworld in ancient Sumer was known by many names, among them ABSU or "Abyss", sometimes as Nar Mattaru, the great Underworld Ocean, and also as Cutha or KUTU as it is called in the Enuma Elish (the Creation Epic of the Sumerians). The phonetic similarity between Cutha and KUTU and Chthonic, as well as Cthulhu, is striking. Judging by a Sumerian grammar at hand, the word KUTULU or Cuthalu (Lovecraft's's Cthulhu Sumerianised) would mean "The Man of KUTU (Cutha); the Man of the Underworld; Satan or Shaitan, as he is known to the Yezidis (whom Crowley considered to be the remnants of the Sumerian Tradition). The list of similarities, both between Lovecraft's creations and the Sumerian gods, as well as between Lovecraft's mythos and Crowley's magick, can go on nearly indefinitely, and in depth, for which there is no space here at present. An exhaustive examination of Crowley's occultism in light of recent findings concerning Sumeria, and exegesis on Lovecraft's stories, is presently in preparation and is hoped to be available shortly. Until that time, a few examples should suffice.

Although a list is appended hereto containing various entities and concepts of Lovecraft, Crowley, and Sumeria cross-referenced, it will do to show how the Editor found relationships to be valid and even startling. AZATOT is frequently mentioned in the grim pages of the Cthulhu Mythos, and appears in the NECRONOMICON as AZAG-THOTH, a combination of two words, the first Sumerian and the second Coptic, which gives us a clue as to Its identity. AZAG in Sumerian means "Enchanter" or "Magician"; THOTH in Coptic is the name given to the Egyptian God of Magick and Wisdom, TAHUTI, who was evoked by both the Golden Dawn and by Crowley himself (and known to the Greeks as Hermes, from whence we get "Hermetic"). AZAG-THOTH is, therefore, a Lord of Magicians, but of the "Black" magicians, or the sorcerers of the "Other Side".

There is a seeming reference to SHUB NIGGURATH in the NECRONOMICON, in the name of a Sumerian deity, the "Answerer of Prayers", called ISHNIGARRAB. The word "Shub" is to be found in the Sumerian language in reference to the Rite of Exorcism, one of which is called Nam Shub and means "the Throwing". It is, however, as yet unclear as to what the combination SHUB ISHNIGARRAB (SHUB NIGGURATH) might actually mean.

There was a battle between the forces of "light" and "darkness" (so-called) that took place long before man was created, before even the cosmos as we know it existed. It is described fully in the Enuma Elish and in the bastardised version found in the NECRONOMICON, and involved the Ancient Ones, led by the Serpent MUMMU-TIAMAT and her male counterpart ABSU, against the ELDER GODS (called such in the N.) led by the Warrior MARDUK, son of the Sea God ENKI, Lord of Magicians of this Side, or what could be called "White Magicians" - although close examination of the myths of ancient times makes one pause before attempting to judge which of the two warring factions was "good" or "evil". MARDUK won this battle - in much the same way that later St. George and St. Michael would defeat the Serpent again - the cosmos was created from the body of the slain Serpent, and man was created from the blood of the slain commander of the Ancient Army, KINGU, thereby making man a descendent of the Blood of the Enemy, as well as the "breath" of the Elder Gods; a close parallel to the "sons of God and daughters of men" reference in the Old Testament. Yet, though the identity of the Victor is clear, there were - and are - certain persons and organisations that dared side with the vanquished, believing the Ancient Ones to be a source of tremendous, and most unbelievable, power.

Worship of the Ancient Ones in History

"Let them curse it that curse the day, who are skilful to rouse Leviathan." - JOB 3:8

S.H. Hooke, in his excellent Middle Eastern Mythology, tells us that the Leviathan mentioned in JOB, and elsewhere in the Old Testament, is the Hebrew name given to the Serpent TIAMAT, and reveals that there was in existence either a cult, or scattered individuals, who worshipped or called up the Serpent of the Sea, or Abyss. Indeed, the Hebrew word for Abyss that is found in GENESIS 1:2 is, Hooke tells us, tehom, which the majority of scholars take to be a survival of the name of the chaos-Dragon TIAMAT or Leviathan that is identified closely with KUTULU or Cthulhu within the pages are mentioned independently of each other, indicating that somehow KUTULU is the male counterpart of TIAMAT, similar to ABSU.

This monster is well known to cult worship all over the world. In China, however, there is an interesting twist. Far from being considered a completely hostile creature, dedicated to the erasure of mankind from the page of existence, the Dragon is given a place of pre-eminence and one does not hear of a Chinese angel or saint striving to slay the Dragon, but rather to cultivate it. The Chinese system of geomancy, feng shui (pronounced fung shway) is the science of understanding the "Dragon currents" which exist beneath the earth, these same telluric energies that are distilled in such places as Chartres Cathedral in France, Glastonbury Tor in England, and the Ziggurats of Mesopotamia. In both the European and Chinese cultures, the Dragon or Serpent is said to reside somewhere "below the earth"; it is a powerful force, a magickal force, which is identified with mastery over the created world; it is also a power that can be summoned by the few and not the many. However, in China, there did not seem to be a backlash of fear or resentment against this force as was known in Europe and Palestine, and the symbol of might and kingship in China is still the Dragon. In the West, the conjuration, cultivation, or worship of this Power was strenuously opposes with the advent of the Solar, Monotheistic religions and those who clung to the Old Ways were effectively extinguished. The wholesale slaughter of those called "Witches" during the Inquisition is an example of this, as well as the solemn and twisted - that is to say, purposeless and unenlightened - celibacy that the Church espoused. For the orgone of Wilhelm Reich is just as much Leviathan as the Kundalini of Tantrick adepts, and the Power raised by the Witches. It has always, at least in the past two thousand years, been associated with occultism and essentially with Rites of Evil Magick, or the Forbidden Magick, of the Enemy, and of Satan . . .

. . . and the twisting, sacred Spiral formed by the Serpent of the Caduceus, and by the spinning of the galaxies, is also the same Leviathan as the Spiral of the biologists' Code of Life : DNA

The Goddess of the Witches

The current revival of the cult called WICCA is a manifestation of the ancient secret societies that sought to tap this telluric, occult force and use it to their own advantage, and to the advantage of humanity as was the original intent. The raising of the Cone of Power through the circle dancing is probably the simplest method of attaining results in "rousing Leviathan", and has been used by societies as diverse as the Dervishes in the Middle East and the Python Dancers of Africa, not to mention the round dances that were familiar to the Gnostic Christians, and the ones held every year in the past at Chartres.

The Witches of today, however, while acknowledging the importance of the Male element of telluric Power, generally prefer to give the greater honour to the Female Principle, personified as the Goddess. The Goddess has also been worshipped all over the world, and under many names, but is still essentially the same Goddess. That TIAMAT was undoubtedly female is to the point; and that the Chinese as well as the Sumerians perceived of two Dragon currents, male and female, gives the researchers a more complex picture. The Green Dragon and the Red Dragon of the alchemists are thus identified, as the positive and negative energies that compromise the cosmos of our perception, as manifest in the famous Chinese yin-yang symbol.

But what of INANNA, the single planetary deity having a female manifestation among the Sumerians? She is invoked in the NECRONOMICON and identified as the vanquisher of Death, for she descended into the Underworld and defeated her sister, the Goddess of the Abyss, Queen ERESHKIGAL (possibly another name for TIAMAT). Interestingly enough, the myth has many parallels with the Christian concept of Christ's death and resurrection, among which the Crucifixion (INANNA was impaled on a stake as a corpse), the three days in the Sumerian Hades, and the eventual Resurrection are outstanding examples of how Sumerian mythology previewed the Christian religion by perhaps as many as three thousand years - a fact that beautifully illustrates the cosmic and eternal nature of this myth.

Therefore, the Goddess of the Witches has two distinct forms: the Ancient One, Goddess of the Dragon-like telluric Power which is raised in Magickal rituals, and the Elder Goddess, Defeater of Death, who brings the promise of Resurrection and Rejuvenation to her followers those who must reside for a time after death and between incarnations in what is called the "Summerland".


Another hallmark of the Craft of the Wise is evident within the NECRONOMICON, as well as in general Sumerian literature, and that is the arrangement of the cross-quarter days, which make up half of the Craft's official pagan holidays. These occur on the eves of February 2nd, May 1st, August 1st, and November 1st, and are called Candlemas, Beltane, Lammas and Samhain (or Hallows), respectively.

The name Lammas has a curious origin in the dunes at Sumer. It is not less than the name of one of the four mythological Beasts of the astrological fixed signs, Lamas being the name of the half-lion, half-man Guardian of Leo (the sign governing most of August, when the feast of Lammas takes place), and USTUR being that of Aquarius (February), SED that of Taurus (May) and NATTIG that of Scorpio (November). I do not believe that this is a fantastic assumption, the Sumerian origin of the Feast of Lammas. Indeed, it seems just as valid as the ideas of Idries Shah concerning Craft etymology as presented in his book, The Sufis. It is also not far-fetched to assume that these four beasts were known to the entire region of the Middle East, as they appear on the Sphinx in Egypt, and have become the symbols of the Four Evangelists of the Christian New Testament - an ironic and splendid result of the ignorance of the Greek religious historians concerning the ancient mysteries!

Probable the most inconsistent concept the Sumerians possesses with reference to the Craft is the naming of the Goddess as a deity, not of the Moon (as the Craft would have it), but of the planet Venus. The Moon was governed by a male divinity, NANNA (like INANNA but minus the initial 'I'), and was considered the Father of the Gods by the earliest Sumerian religion. It should be noted, however, that all of the planetary deities, termed "the zoned Ones" or zonei in Greek, and indeed all of the Sumerian deities, had both male and female manifestations, showing that the Sumerians definitely recognised a yin-yang composition if the universe (the "male Moon" idea is, the Editor is given to understand, common to so-called Aryan mythologies). There is also evidence to show that every god and goddess also had both a good and an evil nature, and evil gods were banished in the exorcism formulae of that civilisation as well as the lesser forms of demon.

The Horned Moon

As mentioned, the God of the Moon was called NANNA by the Sumerians. By the later Sumerians and Assyrians, he was called SIN. In both cases, he was the Father of the Gods (of the planetary realm, the zonei), and was depicted as wearing horns, a symbol familiar to the Witches as representative of their God. The horn shaped crown is illustrative of the crescent phases of the Moon, and were symbolic of divinity in many cultures around the world, and were also thought to represent certain animals who were horned, and worshipped for their particular qualities, such as the goat and bull. They also represent sexual power.

The fact that, in ancient Sumeria and Egypt, horns were solely representative of evil gods, but of many different deities, was used by the Christian Church in their attempt to eradicate pagan faiths. It was a simple enough symbol to identify with the Author of Evil, Satan, which the Church depicted as a half-animal, half-human creature with horns, claws, and sometimes a tail. The Church's use of the horns as a sort of archetype of Evil is quite similar to the feeling many people have today with regards to the swastika used by the Nazis, a symbol which has become the archetype of an evil sigil in the West. The fact that it is a highly valued mystical and religious symbol in the East is something that is not well-known. What is worse, the image of the Devil as perpetrated by the Church is simultaneously representative of sexual energy, and can be safely compared to Jung's archetype of the Shadow, the psychic repository of a man's innate maleness, as the anima represents that part of a man which is feminine. Truly, the pictures painted of a Satanic ritual by the pious Catholic clergymen was one of sexual orgies and "perversions", and the handbook of the Inquisitors, the Malleus Maleficarum - which has been responsible for the deaths of many more people than even Hitler's Mein Kampf - is full of detailed sexual imagery and reveals the nature of the souls of the monks who wrote it, rather than of the innocents it was used to massacre. Eventually, Satanism, Protestantism and Judaism were inextricably woven together to form a patchwork quilt of Evil that the Church attempted to destroy during the Middle Ages, with fire and sword.

As a matter of fact, a certain type of Devil worship did exist during those times but, ironically, the acolytes of Hell were usually never brought to trial; something which stems from the fact that many of those who celebrated and attended the infamous Black Masses of the period were Roman Catholic clergymen, many of whom has been pressed into His Service at a young age by their parents, who wished to see their sons brought up well-fed and educated in those uncertain times, where the Church was the sole power and refuge. The frustration at being "condemned" to a life that demanded the abandonment of society and a "normal" life led many priests to express their hostilities through the Office of the Demon, the Black Mass. Often, this was also a means of political demonstration, as the Church controlled virtually all the political life of the period. In a way, as though in a test tube at a philosophical laboratory, Aleister Crowley was brought up under similar circumstances - although ver far removed in time from the days of the Church's immense temporal power. Coming from a fanatically religious Christian family, and suddenly freed upon the neighbourhood of Cambridge, Crowley did, in a sense, turn Satanist. He identified strongly with the underdog, politically as well as spiritually, and came eventually to take the Name of the Beast as his own, and expound a philosophy that he hoped would rip apart the worn tapestry of the established moral Christian atmosphere of Victorian England, and expose it for what it really was, a carpet made of many ingenious threads and not God - or eternal happiness - at all; only nap.

Therefore, it seemed almost logical that he should seek in the defeated, Old Religions of the world for the basis of his new philosophy and, some say, his new "religion". He raised the female aspect back up to one of equality with the male, as it was in the rites of Egypt, and of Eleusis. "Our Lady Babalon" (his spelling) became a theme of many of his magickal writings, and he received he Credo, the Book of the Law, through a Woman, his wife Rose Kelly. The lunar element, as well as the Venusian, are certainly accessible in his works. It has even been said in occult circles that he had a hand in putting together the grimoire of one Gerald Gardner, founder of a contemporary Witchcraft movement, called the Book of Shadows.

The Moon has an extremely important, indeed indispensable, role in the tantrick sex magick rites that so preoccupied Crowley and the O.T.O. There can be no true magick without woman, nor without man, and in the symbolic language of the occult there can be no Sun without the Moon. In alchemy, ceremonial magick, and Witchcraft, the formula is the same, for they all deal with identical properties; whether they are called the Sun and Moon of the Elixir Vitae, the male and female participants in a rite of Indian or Chinese tantricism, or the Shadow and the Anima of Jungian depth psychology.

For many years, the Moon remained the prime deity of the Sumerians, constituting the essential Personum of a religious and mystical drama that was performed roughly 3000 B.C. amid the deserts and marshes of Mesopotamia. Side by side with the worship of the Moon, NANNA, there was fear of the Demon, PAZUZU, a genie so amply recreated in the book and the movie by Blatty, The Exorcist, and similarly recognised as the Devil Himself by the Church. PAZUZU, the Beast, was brought to life by Aleister Crowley, and the Demon walked the Earth once more.

With publicity provided by H.P. Lovecraft.

The Devil

PAZUZU was a prime example of the type of Devil of which the Sumerians were particularly aware, and which they depicted constantly in their carvings and statues. The purpose of this iconography was to ward off the spiritual - and psychic - circumstances which would precipitate a plague, or some other evil. "Evil to destroy evil." Although the ancient people of the world were conscious of an entity we might call the :Author of all Evil", the Devil or Satan, as evident in the Sumerian Creation Epic and the rumoured existences of the Cult of Set of the Egyptians, the more pressing concern was usually the exorcism of TIAMAT, she exists, somehow, just as the Abyss exists and is perhaps indispensable to human life if we think of Her as typifying the female quality of Energy. Although MARDUK was responsible for halving the Monster from the Sea, the Sumerian Tradition has it that the Monster is not dead, but dreaming, asleep below the surface of the Earth, strong, potent, dangerous, and very real. her powers can be tapped by the knowledgeable, "who are skilful to rouse Leviathan."

Although the Christian religion has gone to great lengths to prove that the Devil is inferior to God and exists solely for His purpose, as the Tempter of Man - surely a dubious raison d'etre - the Sumerian Tradition acknowledges that the Person of "Evil" is actually the oldest, most Ancient of the Gods. Whereas Christianity states that Lucifer was a rebel in heaven, and fell from God's grace to ignominy below, the original story was that MARDUK was the rebel, and severed the Body of the Ancient of Ancient Ones to create the Cosmos in other words, the precise reverse of the Judeo-Christian dogma. The Elder Gods evidently possessed a certain Wisdom that was not held by their Parents, yet their Parents held the Power, the Primal Strength, the First Magick, that the Elder Ones tapped to their own advantage, for they were begotten of Her.

It generally accepted in the Halls of Magick that all of the Wisdom in the world is useless without the necessary adjunct of Power. This Power has gone by many names, as the Goddess and the Devil have, but the Chinese symbolise It by the Dragon. It is the force of Will, and relies heavily upon the biochemical matter that makes up the human body, and hence, the human consciousness, to give it existence. Science is coming around to accept the fact that the Will does exist, just at the point where Psychology has determined it does not - in the behaviourists vain attempt to eradicate what has always been known to constitute vital parts of the psyche from their consideration in pseudo scientific experimentation, leaving us with the "white mice and pigeons" of Koestler's The Ghost In The Machine. Science, ancient Sister of Magick, has begun to realize the human potential that resides, inconspicuously, in the spiral-mapped matter of the brain. Just as the magicians, accused of trafficking with the Devil, were said to have developed tremendous power over natural phenomena, Science has ascended to that realm unblamed, and guiltless. The Pope has ridden in aircraft. Cardinals have flown in 'choppers' over battlefields in Southeast Asia, urging technological eco-side, invoking Christ; pronouncing damnation and the Devil on the industrially inferior man. Ecce Qui Tollit Peccata Mundi.

And a rock group from England, home of the Anglican heresy, sings of "sympathy" for the Devil. PAZUZU. TIAMAT. The Seven Deadly Sins. The fear of Lovecraft. The pride of Crowley.

The lunar landing was the symbolic manifestation of man's newly acquired potential power to alter the nature - and perhaps, via nuclear weapons, the course - of the heavenly bodies, the zonei, the Elder Gods. It has a power the Ancient Ones have been waiting for, for millennia, and it is now within their grasp. The next century may deliver unto mankind this awesome power and responsibility, and will leave him knocking on the dread doors of the azonei, the IGIGI, approaching the barrier that keeps out the ABSU.

And one day, without the benefit of NECRONOMICON, the Race of Man will smash the barrier and the Ancient Ones will rule once more.

An alternative possibility exists: that, by landing on the Moon, we have come to reinstate the ancient Covenant and thereby assure our protection against the Outside. Since "the gods are forgetful", buy treading on their celestial spheres we are reminding them of their ancient obligations to us, their created ones. For, as it is said in one of man's most ancient of Covenants, the Emerald Table, "As Above, So Below". Man's power to alter the nature of his environment must develop simultaneously with his ability to master his inner environment, his own mind his psyche, soul, spirit. Perhaps, then, the lunar landing was the first collective initiation for humanity, which will bring it one step closer to a beneficial Force that resides beyond the race of the "cruel celestial spirits", past the Abyss of Knowledge. Yet, he must remember that the occult powers that accompany magickal attainment are ornamental only, indications of obstacles overcome on the Path to Perfection, and are not to be sought after in themselves, for therein lies the truth Death. Lovecraft saw this Evil, as the world passed from one War and moved menacingly towards another. Crowley prepared for it, and provided us with the formulae. The Mad Arab saw it all, in a vision, and wrote it down. He was, perhaps, one of the most advanced adepts of his time, and her certainly has something to say to us, today, in a language the Intuition understands. Yet they called him "Mad".

Accompanied in the ranks of the "insane" by such "madmen" as Neitzsche, Artaud, and Reich, the Mad Arab makes a Fourth, in a life-and-death game of cosmic bridge. They are all voices crying in that wilderness of madness that men call Society, and as such were ostracised, stoned, and deemed mentally unfit for life. But, for them, Justice will come when we have realised that the Ship of State and the Ship of St Peter have become mere Ships of Fools - with Captains who course the seas by stars, ignoring the eternal Ocean - and then, we will have to look to the Prisoners in the Hold for navigational guidance.

It is there, always, and Cthulhu Calls.


THE PRESENT MANUSCRIPT was delivered into the hands of the Editor by a priest who had managed to get ordained through uncanonical methods which have been entertainingly described in the several books and articles on the ecclesiastic phenomenon, the "wandering bishops". Just such an "unorthodox" prelate was Fr. Montague Summers, who wrote numerous books on demonology, witchcraft, and the like. Suffice it to say, we were rather doubtful as to the authenticity of the work before us. In the first place, it was in Greek and for quite awhile it was difficult to ascertain what it might actually be, save for the title NECRONOMICON and the many weird drawings. In the second place, after translation, we found several internal inconsistencies and some evidence that would suggest we did not possess the entire Work. There may still be some missing or the irregular monastic might have withheld certain of the chapters. As the chapters are not numbered, it is too difficult to day.

A great deal of misfortune accompanied the publication of this book. First, we went through more than one translator. The last finally absconded with his preface, describing his work in the some detail. This, we will have to do from memory in the following pages. At one point, an unscrupulous publisher from the West Coast took a copy of the initial preface and some of the miscellaneous pages in translation (including some dummies, which we were in the habit of giving potential publishers for our protection) and went off, and has not been heard from again.

At a crucial stage in the preparation of the manuscript, the Editor was stricken with a collapsed lung and had to undergo emergency surgery to save his life.

But, let us proceed with a description of the contents of the NECRONOMICON:

Within these pages a series of myths and rituals are presented that have survive the darkest days of magick and occultism. The exorcisms and bindings of the famous Maqlu text are here presented for the first time in English, although not completely: for the originals in their entirety were evidently not known to the author of the NECRONOMICON, nor are they to present scholarship; the various tablets upon which they were written being cracked and effaced in many places, rendering translation impossible. The MAGAN text, which comprises the Creation Epic of the Sumerians (with much later glosses) and the account of INANNA's "descent into the Underworld", along with more extraneous matter, is presented. The unique "Book of the Entrance" has no counterpart in occult literature, and the drawings of magickal seals and symbols are wholly new to anything that has yet appeared on the contemporary occult scene - although bearing some resemblances to various diagrams found in the ancient Arabic texts of the last millennium. Although some of the characters found in these pages can be traced to Mandaic and Demotic sources, and are evidently of a much later date than the Rites of Sumer, the overall appearance of the seals is quite unusual, almost surreal.

The Book begins with an introduction by the alleged author, the Mad Arab (the name that Lovecraft made famous, 'Abdul Alhazred' does not appear in our copy of the Ms.), and ends with a sort of epilogue by the same Arab. We have called the first part "The Testimony of the Mad Arab" and the latter "The Testimony of the Mad Arab, the Second Part." The Second Part if the most chilling. The author has, by this stage in the writing of his opus, become fearful for his soul and begins to repeat himself in the text, saying things he has already said in previous chapters as though having forgotten he had said them, or perhaps to stress their importance. The Second Testimony is riddled through with non sequiturs and bits of incantation.

He does not finish the Book.

It trails off where he would have signed it, presumably, in the Arab manner, but giving his lineage. Instead, it ends before he can name himself or even one relation. We can only imagine with horror what fate befell this noble Sage.

Another problem that confronts the Editor is the suspected frequency of the copyist's glosses; that is, there do seem to be occasionally bits of sentence or fragments of literature that would seem to be inconsistent with the period in which the text was written. However, no final word can be said on this matter. The difficulty arises in the age-old question of "which came first, the chicken or the egg?". For instance, in the MAGAN text, the final verses read though from the Chaldean Oracles of Zoroaster:

"Stoop not down, therefore, into the darkly shining world," which might have been of Greek origin and not Zoroastrian. It is a question for scholars.

The etymology of certain words is a game that has fascinated both the Editor and perhaps a score or more of Sumerian researches of the past. The Sumerian origin of many of the words and place-names we use today provides us with an insight into our own origins. For instance, the Sumerian word for the temple is BAR, from which we get our word "barrier", or so it is said by Waddell. This makes sense in the context with the erecting and maintaining of barriers against the hostile forces Outside.

The etymology is even dramatic where Magick is concerned, and aids us in understand even Crowley's system better than we do. As an example, Crowley of (or Aiwass) ends the Book of the Law with the words "AUM.HA." In the Sumero-Aryan Dictionary by Waddell we read that the word AUM was known to the Sumerians, in almost the same sense that it was, and is, known to the Hindus. It is a sacred word, and pertains to the Lord of Magicians, ENKI. Further, the Greek spelling of ENKI was EA, by which he is most commonly known in the European texts which treat of Sumeriology. In the Greek alphabet, EA would appear as HA. Q.E.D: AUM.HA betrays the essential Sumerian character of that Book.

After the initial Testimony, we come to the chapter entitles "Of the ZONEI and Their Attributes", Zonei is, of course a Greek word and refers to the planetary, or heavenly bodies; for they are "zoned", i.e., having set courses and spheres. They are also known as such in the Chaldean Oracles. The 'spirits' or bodies that exist beyond the zonei are called the azonei, meaning "un-zoned". Whether this refers to the so-called "fixed " stars (having no sphere ascertainable to the early astronomers) or the comets, is unknown to the Editor. Whatever the case may be, the zonei seem to include the Seven Philosophical Planets, i.e., including the Sun and Moon as planetary bodies, along with Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Each has their own seal and their own Number.

Kenneth Grant, author of Aleister Crowley and the Hidden God, may be interested to know (or may already know) that the Number of the Sumerian Goddess of Venus, hence of Love and War, is Fifteen. In many of the ancient tablets of that period, she is actually referred to as "the Fifteen", as a shortcut to spelling out the whole Name in cuneiform, was assume. Grant made much of "the Goddess Fifteen" in his study of Crowley's system as related to Tantricism, without mentioning the Name by which this Goddess is quite well-known, or even mentioning Her native country!

After the chapter on Zonei, we come to the "Book of Entrance" which is really a system of self-initiation into the planetary spheres and may have something to do with the planetary arrangement of the steps of the ziggurats of Mesopotamia, which were seven storeyed mountains. Not much is revealed to the potential candidate for initiation as to how these "gates" work, or what he might find there, save to say that the key of one Gate lies in mastering the Gate before it. The Mad Arab was either keeping a sacred Secret, or found human language inadequate to the task of describing what other initiates in similar systems have expressed in the vague abstractions of the truly illuminated, likening the experience to an LSD trip.

The "Incantations of the Gates" follow, and are probably meant to accompany the preceding chapter, being prayers proper to each of the celestial Gates. The "conjuration of the Fire God" follows this, and resembles the others in its mixture of Greek and Sumerian phrases. It should be noted here that wherever a Sumerian phrases. It should be noted here that wherever a Sumerian phrase appears in the original MS. we have kept it as it is, untranslated, as we expect the Mad Arab would have wanted it. Quite possibly, even he did not know the exact meaning of much of the conjurations in the Old Tongue, but viewed it as a 'barbarous' tongue' which must be preserved because of its essential Power. Indeed, with the publication of this Book, Sumerian may become as popular among magicians as the strange, angelic language of Enochian, discovered by Dr. Dee in Elizabeth England.

In Greek, in the original MS., a common incantation would look something like this (using Roman characters for the Greek):


(O Wicked God O Wicked Demon O Demon Spirit of the Sky, Remember! Spirit of the Earth, Remember!)

Yet, a word like SHAMMASH, the Name of the Solar Deity, would read SAMAS or SAMMAS, and in the text of the NECRONOMICON we would make the word read like its original.

The "Conjuration of the Watcher" follows the Fire God conjuration. The word "watcher" is sometimes used synonymously with "angel", and sometimes as a distinct Race, apart from angelos: egragori. The Race of Watchers are said not to care what they Watch, save that they follow orders. They are somewhat mindless creatures, but quite effective. Perhaps they correspond toe Lovecraft's shuggoths, save that the latter become unweildly and difficult to manage.

After the Watcher, comes the MAKLU text, which appears to be a collection of exorcisms, which includes the famous "Xilka Xilka Besa Besa" incantation, in the original, to which a translation has been appended in this work - a translation evidently not at hand when the author compiled the MS. Thus, for the first time, this much-rumoured exorcism is available in full and in English.

After this, the "Book of Calling" needs little explanation. It is the grimoire of the NECRONOMICON, containing the formulae of ritual conjuration, as well as the seals and diagrams to accompany the rites. It is followed by "The Book of Fifty Names" being fifty separate powers of the God MARDUK, defeater of Chaos. This is interesting, in that the names seem to come from the Enuma Elish, in which the Elder Gods confer these fifty names upon MARDUK as titles, in their appreciation of his routing of Evil. A sigil is given for each of the Names, and a word of Power for most of them.

Then appears the Centrepiece of the Book, the MAGAN text. The word MAGAN may mean the Land of the MAGAN which was said to lie in the West of Sumer. For a time, it seems the name MAGAN was synonymous with the Place of Death - as the Sun 'died' in the West. Hence, it is a bit confusing as to what MAGAN is really supposed to mean in this text, but in context the "Place of Death" explanation seems quite valid. The MAGAN text is nothing more than an incomplete and free-form version of the Creation Epic of Sumer, along with INANNA's Descent into the Underworld, and many glosses. We are told how MARDUK slays TIAMAT - after much the same fashion that the Chief of Police of Amity slays the great white shark in Benchley's novel JAWS, blowing an evil wind (the oxygen tank) into Her mouth and sending in an arrow (bullet) in after it to explode her. Surely, the two or three most box-office successful films of the past few years, JAWS, THE EXORICST and, perhaps, THE GODFATHER, are an indication that the essence of Sumerian mythology is making itself felt in a very real way in this, the latter half of the Twentieth Century?

After the long and poetic MAGAN text, comes the URILLIA text which might be Lovecraft's R'lyeh Text, and is subtitled "Abominations". It has more specifically to do with the worship of the Serpent, and the nature of the cults that participate in the Concelebration of Sin. Again, more conjurations and seals are given, even though the reader is charged not to use them; an inconsistency that is to be found in many grimoires of any period and perhaps reveals a little of the magicians's mentality; for there is very little that is evil to the advanced magus, who cares not if he deals with angelic or demonic forces, save that he gets the job done!

Then, following the URILLIA text and forming the very end of the received MS., is the Second Part of the Testimony of the Mad Arab. It is a haunting and sorrowful occult personality. Was he really mad? This is perhaps a question that will go on for as long as Man tries to understand himself; himself as a part of the cosmic dance and spiral, which includes the satanic as well as the deific, the sad as well as the happy. Perhaps the Arab was privy to some other-worldly secret that he could not reveal. Perhaps he had opened the Door by mistake, his own personal Gate to the Abyss, and was forced to cross its threshold into the Unknown. We may never know.

Or, we may wish we never had.

The Editor New York, New York October 12, 1975


(showing some relationships to be found between the mythos of Lovecraft, the magick of Crowley, and the faith of Sumer.)





The Great Beast as represented in "CTHDH 666"

Ctha-lu, Kutulu

The Ancient Ones

Satan; Teitan



Aiwass (?)


The Dunwich Horror



Shub Niggurath


Sub Ishniggarab (?)

Out of Space

The Abyss

Absu; Nar Mattaru



IA (JAH; EA; Lord of Waters)

The Five-pointed grey

Star carven

The Pentagram

The AR, or UB (Plough Sign; the original pentagram and the sign of the Aryan Race) Vermis Mysteriis

The Serpent

Erim (the Enemy; and the Sea as Chaos; Gothic; Orm, or Worm (wyrm), great Serpent)

This is, of course, by no means a complete list but rather an inspirational sampling. Meditation upon the various Things mentioned in the Mythos will permit the scholar to draw his own conclusions; research upon the etymology of both Lovecraft's and Crowley's respective literature enables the occultist to discover the ancient Names and Numbers for much of his own, familiar, material.

(Note: that Lovecraft may have head or Crowley is hinted at darkly in his short story "The Thing On The Doorstep" in which he refers to a cult leader from England who had established a covenstead of sorts in New York. In that story, published in Weird Tales in 1936, the cult leader is closely identified with chthonic forces, is described as "notorious", and linked to the strange fate that befell the protagonist, Edward Derby.)


THE CHART that follows is based on research presently available to the Editor with regard to Sumerian and Assyro-Babylonian religions. Entries in parentheses refer to the state of correspondences before the advert of the Elder Gods, the Race of MARDUK; that is, it reflects the nature of the cosmos before the Fall of MARDUK from Heaven. (Names of zodiacal constellations are after Budge's renderings.)


 Table VII [A.C.]

 Table XXV [S.]





 Sphere of the Primum Mobile



 Sphere of the Zodiac or Fixed  Stars



 Sphere of Saturn



 Sphere of Jupiter



 Sphere of Mars



 Sphere of the Sun



 Sphere of Venus



 Sphere of Mercury



 Sphere of the Moon



 Sphere of the Elements





































ZIBANITUM (Ravening Dog)
































 (bis) Earth



 (bis) Spirit



WE CANNOT BE absolutely how Sumerian and Akkadian were spoken; but many useful guidelines are available to the student, including the transliterated tablets found all over Mesopotamia. Basically, we can offer the following principles which should prove of value in reciting the foreign language instructions :


a as in "father" e as in "whey" i as in "antique" o as in "boat" (but rarely found) u as in "zulu"


Most are basically the same as in English. The Sumerians did not have an alphabet as we know it, but they had developed a syllabary, very much like the Japanese "Kana" script of today. In phonetic transliterations, the English spelling sought to approximate the Sumerian pronunciation. However, there are a few sounds which English does not possess, and which have been put into phonetic variations. Important examples below :

X as in the German "ach" CH (same as above) Q as in "like" K (same as above) SH as in "shall" SS as in, perhaps, "lasso"; a hissing "s" common to Arabic languages Z as in "lots"; a hard "ts" sound, not quite as in "zoo"

Remember, in the transliterations which follow, every letter must be pronounced. There are no schwas or silent syllables in Sumerian. Hence, "KIA" is pronounced "keeya"; "KAIMANU" is pronounced "ka-ee-mah-nu" or, if spoken rapidly, the two initial vowel sounds slur into 'kigh' rhyming with "high"

The incantations should be said carefully and slowly at first, to familiarise oneself with the tongue-twisting phrases. A mistake may prove fatal to the Work


WHERE POSSIBLE, the Editor has taken every opportunity to find the original Sumerian or Akkadian translation of a given Greek charm of conjuration. These will be given here. Also, the reader will find English translations of the Sumerian charms as they are given in the NECRONOMICON. Not al of the charms are available this way, and sometimes we have had to make do with near misses. Much of what is found here has come from the Maklu text, of which the only extant translation is in the German of Tallqvist ("Die Assyrische Beschworungsserie Maqlu nach dem originalen im British Museum Herausgegeben" Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae, Tomm. XX, No. 6, Helsingforsiae mdcccxcv). The word "maklu" or "maqlu" itself is controversial, but Tallqvist seems to think that it does, indeed, mean "burning"; especially so as the incantations to be found therein invariably entail burning something, usually a doll made in the likeness of a witch or evil sorcerer that the magician wished to dispose of. Hence, we have here probably the archetype of the Great Burning Times of the Inquisition, when people were condemned to a fiery death as Witches and Pagans. The chant "burn, witch! burn!" can be found in the Maklu text, in all its pristine glory. Indeed, Cthulhu Calls.

The Conjuration "The Binding of the Evil Sorcerers"

Alsi ku nushi ilani mushiti
Itti kunu alsi mushitum kallatum kuttumtum
Alsi bararitum qablitum u namaritum
Ashshu kashshaptu u kashshipanni
Eli nitum ubbiraanni
Ili-ia u Ishtari-ia ushis-su-u-eli-ia
Eli ameri-ia amru-usanaku
Imdikula salalu musha u urra
Qu-u imtana-allu-u pi-ia
Upu unti pi-ia iprusu
Me mashtiti-ia umattu-u
Eli li nubu-u xiduti si-ipdi
Izizanimma ilani rabuti shima-a dababi
Dini dina alakti limda
Epu-ush salam kashshapi-ia u kashshapti-ia
Sha epishia u mushtepishti-ia
Is mass-ssarati sha mushi lipshuru ruxisha limnuti
Pisha lu-u ZAL.LU Lishanusha Lu-u Tabtu
Sha iqbu-u amat limutti-ia kima ZAL.LU litta-tuk
Sha ipushu kishpi kima Tabti lishxarmit
qi-ishrusha pu-uttu-ru ipshetusha xulluqu
Kal amatusha malla-a sseri
Ina qibit iqbu-u ilani mushitum.

The Conjuration "XILQA XILQA BESA BESA" or "A Most Excellent Charm Against the
Hordes of Demons" etc.

Arise! Arise! Go far away! Go far away!
Be shamed! Be shamed! Flee! Flee!
Turn around, go, arise and go far away!
Your wickedness may rise to heaven like unto smoke!
Arise and leave my body!
From my body, depart in shame!
From my body flee!
Turn away from my body!
Go away from my body!
Do not return to my body!
Do no come near my body!
Do not approach my body!
Do not throng around my body!
Be commanded by Shammash the Mighty!
Be commanded by Enki, Lord of All!
Be commanded by Marduk, the Great Magician of the Gods!
Be commanded by the God of Fire, your Destroyer!
May you be held back from my body!

"Another Binding of the Sorcerers"

Ssalmani-ia ana pagri tapqida duppira
Ssalmani-ia ana pagri taxira duppira
Ssalmani-ia iti pagri tushni-illa duppira
Ssalmani ini ishdi pagri tushni-illa duppira
Ssalmani-ia qimax pagri taqbira duppira
Ssalmani-ia ana qulqullati tapqida duppira
Ssalmani-ia ina igari tapxa-a duppira
Ssalmani-ia ina askuppati Tushni-illa duppira
Ssalmani-ia ina bi'sha duri tapxa-a duppira
Ssalmani-ia ana GISHBAR tapqida duppira

The Conjuration of the Mountains of MASHU"

May the mountain overpower you!
May the mountain hold you back!
May the mountain conquer you!
May the mountain frighten you!
May the mountain shake you to the core!
May the mountain hold you in check!
May the mountain subject you!
May the mountain cover you!
May the mighty mountain fall on you,
May you be held back from my body!

(Note: the original translator had noted the resemblance between the Greek word for Lors, kurios, and the Sumerian word for mountain, kur, and for a type of underworld, chthoic, monster which is also called kur and which refers to the Leviathan of the Old Testament. Also, in this particular conjuration, the word for mountain is shadu - shaddai ? The Old Serpent KUR is, of course, invoked every day by the Christians: Kyrie Eleison!)








 Alla Xul

 Evil God



 Dingir Xul

 Evil God

 Edin Na Zu!

 Go to the Desert! (a form of exorcism)



 Gigim xul

 Evil Spirit

 Gidim Xul

 Evil Ghost













 Maskim Xul

 Evil Fiend (Ambusher, Lier-In-Wait)

 Mulla Xul

 Evil Devil


 (same as Maskim Xul)


 Wicked Demon (Warrior)


 God of Death



 Utuk Xul

 Evil Spirit

 Zi Dingir Anna Kanpa!

 Spirit, God of the Sky, Remember!

 Zi Dinger Kia Kanpa!

 Spirit, God of the Earth, Remember!


THE EDITOR and the Publishers anticipate that there will be a demand at first for privileged views of the original NECRONOMICON, whether out of curiosity's sake, or by nervous experimenters who will be certain that we did not copy a sigil correctly, etc. Let us hasten to state at this point that the original Ms. is neither the property of the Editor, nor the Publishers. We were given the right to translate and publish this work, with as much additional and explanatory material as needed, but not the right to hold the MS. up to public inspection. We regret that this is the case, but we also feel that it might be advisable, in reference to the dangerous character of the work involved. Perhaps one day a book will be written on the hazards of possessing such an original work in one's home or office, including the fearful hallucinations, physical incapacities, and emotional malaise that accompanied this work from the onset of the translation to the end of its final published form.

Therefore, as a matter of policy, we cannot honour any requests to see the NECRONOMICON in its original state.


Read this section carefully.

In the interim period between the translation and the publication of this work, the Editor, along with a circle of initiates in another discipline, undertook to experiment with the rituals and forces outlined in the NECRONOMICON. In using the material alone, or within a Western ceremonial structure (such as the Golden Dawn system) we came upon startling discoveries in both cases: there are no effective banishings for the forces invoked in the NECRONOMICON itself! The rituals, incantations, formulae of this Book are of ancient origin, comprising some of the oldest written magickal workings in Western occult history. the deities and demons identified within have probably not been effectively summoned in nearly six thousand years. Ordinary exorcisms and banishing formulae have thus far proved extremely inadequate: this, by experienced magicians. Hence, the following recommendations.

The religion of the ancient Sumerian peoples seems to have been lunar-oriented, a religion - or religion - magickal structure - of the night, of darkness in a sense. Invocations using solar formulae have proved thus far effective in successfully banishing NECRONOMICON demons and intelligences. For instance, the Kaddish prayer of the Jewish faith contains some solar elements that have proved resilient to inimical genii, and the vibration of the Lord's Prayer for Christians is also a workable method.

We suggest that individual operators utilise an equivalent solar (i.e., positive light) invocation from their own religion or the religion of their ancestors, should the no longer have a religion or should they have changed it in their lifetime.

For best practical purposes in the beginning - for those intent on actually using the rituals contained herein - it is advisable to take especial care in the construction of the magickal circle and of all magickal defences. A preliminary period of purification is well in order before attempting anything in this grimoire. Persons of unstable mental condition, or unstable emotional condition, should not be allowed, under any circumstances, to observe one of these rituals in progress. That would be criminal, and perhaps in suicidal. One of our colleagues was fearfully attacked by his dog directly following a fairly simple and uncomplicated formula from this book. This is definitely not a Gilbert chemistry set.

The method of the NECRONOMICON concerns deep, primeval forces that seem to pre-exist the normal archetypal images of the tarot trumps and the Golden Dawn telesmatic figures. These are forces that developed outside the Judeo-Christian mainstream, and were worshipped and summoned long before the creation of the Qabala as we know it today. Hence, the ineffectiveness of the Golden Dawn banishing procedures against them. They are not necessarily demonic or qliphotic in the sense that these terms are commonly understood in the West, they just simply represent power sources largely untapped and thus far ignored by twentieth-century, mainstream consciousness.

The results of any experimentation with this book, as well as practical suggestions concerning its rituals, are welcomed by the publishers.


(by no means complete, but representative. alphabetically by author)




 Bernhard, Bennet  and Rice.

 New Handbook of the Heavens

 New York, 1948

 Budge, E.A.

 Amulets and Talismans

 New York, 1970

 Crowley, A.

 Book Four

 Texas, 1972

Crowley, A.

 The Book of Thoth

 New York, 1969

Crowley, A.

 Liber AL vel Legis

 New York, 1977

Crowley, A.


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THIS is the testimony of all that I have seen, and all that I have learned, in those years that I have possessed the Three Seals of MASSHU. I have seen One Thousand-and-One moons, and surely this is enough for the span of a man's life, though it is said the Prophets lived much longer. I am weak, and ill, and bear a great tiredness and exhaustion, and a sigh hangs in my breast like a dark lantern. I am old.

The wolves carry my name in their midnight speeches, and that quiet, subtle Voice is summoning me from afar. And a Voice much closer will shout into my ear with unholy impatience. The weight of my soul will decide its final resting place. Before that time, I must put down here all that I can concerning the horrors that stalk Without, and which lie in wait at the door of every man, for this is the ancient arcana that has been handed down of old, but which has been forgotten by all but a few men, the worshippers of the Ancient Ones (may their names be blotted out!).

And if I do not finish this task, take what is here and discover the rest, for time is short and mankind does not know nor understand the evil that awaits it, from every side, from every Gate, from every broken barrier, from every mindless acolyte at the alters of madness.

For this is the Book of the Dead, the Book of the Black Earth, that I have writ down at the peril of my life, exactly as I received it, on the planes of the IGIGI, the cruel celestial spirits from beyond the Wanderers of the Wastes.

Let all who read this book be warned thereby that the habitation of men are seen and surveyed by that Ancient Race of gods and demons from a time before time, and that they seek revenge for that forgotten battle that took place somewhere in the Cosmos and rent the Worlds in the days before the creation of Man, when the Elder Gods walked the Spaces, the race of MARDUK, as he is known to the Chaldeans, and of ENKI our MASTER, the Lord of Magicians.

Know, then, that I have trod all the Zones of the Gods, and also the places of the Azonei, and have descended unto the foul places of Death and Eternal Thirst, which may be reached through the Gate of GANZIR, which was built in UR, in the days before Babylon was.

Know, too, that I have spoken with all manner of spirit and daemon, whose names are no longer known in the societies of Man, or were never known. And the seals of some of these are writ herein; yet others I must take with me when I leave you. ANU have mercy on my soul!

I have seen the Unknown Lands, that no map has ever charted. I have lived in the deserts and the wastelands, and spoken with demons and the souls of slaughtered men, and of women who have dies in childbirth, victims of the she-fiend LAMMASHTA.

I have traveled beneath the Seas, in search of the Palace of Our Master, and found the stone of monuments of vanquished civilisations, and deciphered the writings of some of these; while still others remain mysteries to any man who lives. And these civilisations were destroyed because of the knowledge contained in this book.

I have traveled among the stars, and trembled before the Gods. I have, at last, found the formulae by which I passed the Gate ARZIR, and passed into the forbidden realms of the foul IGIGI.

I have raised demons, and the dead.

I have summoned the ghosts of my ancestors to real and visible appearance on the tops of temples built to reach the stars, and built to touch the nethermost cavities of HADES. I have wrestled with the Black Magician, AZAG-THOTH, in vain, and fled to the Earth by calling upon INANNA and her brother MARDUK, Lord of the double-headed AXE.

I have raised armies against the Lands of the East, by summoning the hordes of fiends I have made subject unto me, and so doing found NGAA, the God of the heathens, who breathes flame and roars like a thousand thunders.

I have found fear.

I have found the Gate that leads to the Outside, by which the Ancient Ones, who ever seek entrance to our world, keep eternal watch. I have smelled the vapours of that Ancient One, Queen of the Outside, whose name is writ in the terrible MAGAN text, the testament of some dead civilisation whose priests, seeking power, swing open the dread, evil Gate for an hour past the time, and were consumed.

I came to possess this knowledge through circumstances quite peculiar, while still the unlettered son of a shepherd in what is called Mesopotamia by the Greeks.

When I was only a youth, travelling alone in the mountains to the East, called MASSHU by the people who live there, I came upon a grey rock carved with three strange symbols. It stood as high as a man, and as wide around as a bull. It was firmly in the ground, and I could not move it. Thinking no more of the carvings, save that they might be the work of a king to mark some ancient victory over an enemy, I built a fire at its foot to protect me from the wolves that wander in those regions and went to sleep, for it was night and I was far from my village, being Bet Durrabia. Being about three hours from dawn, in the nineteenth of Shabatu, I was awakened by the howl of a dog, perhaps of a wolf, uncommonly loud and close at hand. The fire had dies to its embers, and these red, glowing coals cast a faint, dancing shadow across the stone monument with the three carvings. I began to make haste to build another fire when, at once, the gray rock began to rise slowly into the air, as though it were a dove. I could not move or speak for the fear that seized upon my spine and wrapped cold fingers around my skull. The Dik of Azug-bel-ya was no stranger to me than this sight, though the former seemed to melt into my hands!

Presently, I heard a voice, softly, some distance away and a more practical fear, that of the possibility of robbers, took hold of me and I rolled behind some weeds, trembling. Another voice joined the first, and soon several men in the black robes of thieves came together over the place where I was, surrounding the floating rock, of which they did not exhibit the least fright.

I could see clearly now that the three carvings on the stone monument were glowing a flame red colour, as though the rock were on fire. The figures were murmuring together in prayer or invocation, of which only a few words could be heard, and these in some unknown tongue; though, ANU have mercy on my soul!, these rituals are not unknown to me any longer.

The figures, whose faces I could not see or recognise, began to make wild passes in the air with knives that glinted cold and sharp in the mountain night.

From beneath the floating rock, out of the very ground where it had sat, came rising the tail of a Serpent. This Serpent was surely larger than any I had ever seen. The thinnest section thereof was fully that of the arms of two men, and as it rose from the earth it was followed by another, although the end of the first was not seen as it seemed to reach down into the very Pit itself. These were followed by still more, and the ground began to tremble under the pressure of so many of these enormous arms. The chanting of the priests, for I knew them now to be the servants of some hidden Power, became much louder and very nearly hysterical.


The ground where I was hiding became wet with some substance, being slightly downhill from the scene I was witnessing. I touched the wetness and found it to be blood. In horror, I screamed and gave my presence away to the priests. They turned toward me, and I saw a loathing that they had cut their chests with the daggers they had used to raise the stone, for some mystical purpose I could not then divine; although I know now that blood is the very food of these spirits, which is why the field after the battles of war glows with an unnatural light, the manifestations of the spirits feeding thereon.

May ANU protect us all!

My scream had the effect of casting their ritual into chaos and disorder. I raced through the mountain path by which I had come, and the priests came running after me, although some seemed to stay behind, perhaps to finish the Rites. However, as I ran wildly down the slopes in the cold night, my heart giving rise in my chest and my head growing hot, the sound of splitting rocks and thunder came from behind me and shook the very ground I ran upon. In fright, and in haste, I fell to the earth.

Rising, I turned to face whatever attacker had come nearest me, though I was unarmed. To my surprise what I saw was no priest of ancient horror, no necromancer of that forbidden Art, but black robes fallen upon the grass and weeds, with no seeming presence of life or bodies beneath them.

I walked cautiously to the first and, picking up a long twig, lifted the robe from the tangle of weeds and thorns. All that remained of the priest was a pool of slime, like green oil, and the smell of a body lain long to rot in the sun. Such a stench nearly overpowered me, but I was resolute to find the others, to see if the same fortune had also befallen them.

author unknown

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